A Pathway to Asgard’s Secrets
AN ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATION OF THE RUNES
||AN ALTERNATIVE INTERPRETATION
The domestication of cattle appeared as early as 6000 BCE.
Alongside its domesticated species, the aurochs roamed free. Because of overhunting in Iron Age Scandinavia and Britain, however, the beast could barely survive. Adam von Bremen refers to the animal as if of legends (1075). By 1627, the last of its kind died in captivity at the Polish royal court. However, the animals has been revered throughout human history, making its first cultural appearance in Paleolithic artwork.
This typical Germanic word has not survived beyond the borders of Scandinavia. Nowadays, it is only known in modern Icelandic and possibly modern Danish.
A typical Germanic word that has not found its way in any of the modern Germanic languages, exceplt possibly modern Icelandic. Our only information on its etymology derives from the Gothic language, where it means divine ancestor. However, the ancestor cult is widespread throughout human history and found in many traditions. Different ways of burying the dead may have to do with a change in ancestor worship.
The wheel is invented in the Ancient Near East at about 3500 BCE. The first wooden wheel in Europe is found in Switzerland and dates back to 3000 BCE. Carts and wagons first made their appearance during the Bronze Age in Europe. First the Celts adopted it, then the Germanics.
Fire has first been controlled by Homo Erectus. Making fire dates from ca. 80,000 years ago, in Paleolithic times.
Diplomatic relations among Ancient Germanic tribes and with Celts and Romans were upheld by gift-giving. Trade made it possible to have both objects and information travel long distances. Especially the amber routes are noteworthy. They stretched from north to south across Europe and sustained Europe's economy for a long time.
The feeling of joy is related to a chemical substance called endorfin.
Bow and arrow and spears are an invention of the Paleolithic.
Kindling the Need-Fire is a ritual recorded throughout Europe and still survives in some forms and in some places today. Possibly, it first emerged during the Bronze Age.
The Last Ice Age happened between 12,000 and 9000 BCE and marked the last crucial stage of human society. All of the mystery traditions of Ancient Europe have their start at that time.
Wheat and barley are cultivated and domesticated from about 7000 BCE. This is the beginning of the Neolithic and inaugurates sedentary societies.
Next to birch, evergreens, among which yew, are the first plants to reemerge after the Ice Age devestation. Alhtough handbows are made from yew, this was not always the case. Before, elm wood was used. Ca. 4000 BCE elm disappeared and people started making yew bows.
Apples as a source of food are known to have been gathered from 10,000 BCE onwards. Especially Ancient Rome is responsible for its cultivation and many varieties, also in Europe.
Alcis is the name of a twin god in Tacitus' writing (Germania, 98 AD). The god's name is not known from later sources, implying that Alcis was an Iron Age god and may originate from a Bronze Age god.
In Scandinavia, a solar cultus is prominent from Bronze Age times. The famous Trundholm Solar Chariot dates from the Bronze Age. Ships bearing Sun Discs also appear in Bronze Age rock engravings.
A god prominent in Early Iron Age times and possibly head of the Germanic pantheon. Before, the word may have referred to a kind of priest. The word is cognate with Jupiter, Zeus and Deva.
Birch is the first tree species dominating after the Last Ice Age.
The process of domesticating the horse started at about 3800 BCE in Ukraine. The word is typical Indo-European, but no longer occurs in any of the modern Germanic languages except modern Icelandic. Hence it might have been reserved to denote sacred horses.
As a subspecies Homo Sapiens begins his evolution in the Paleolithic. The European Continent welcomes the first human beings from ca. 40,000 BCE.
Bodies of water predominate as a place of sacrifice throughout human history. Ancient Scandinavia remembers them from Early Iron Age times onwards. Healing properties were ascribed to wells by both Celts and Greeks. In Ancient Mesopotamia, rivers were a connection to the Underworld.
This is another typical Ancient Germanic deity (Iron Age and before). His name is remembered in Viking times, but as a god, he disappears.
Humanity makes the transition from nomadic existence to sedentary life from ca. 10,000 BCE inaugurating the Neolithic. The concept of udal-rights is fairly recent and might stem from the Late Iron Age because the very notion implies the possession of land - a concept rather unfamiliar to the Ancient Germanic tribes at first.
In Scandinavia, the concept of daylight reminds of the summer months of light and the winter months of darkness. From when people first began to live up in the High North after the Last Ice Age, this concept must have been part of their mysteries.